Bachkovo Monastery was for sure one of the most stunning of the many sights I saw in my short time in Bulgaria! Despite all the visitors, the atmosphere was one of tranquillity. The buildings looked so photogenic both in the drizzly weather we arrived in and the sunshine when we departed; and there was so much to see that was both interesting and beautiful.
Bachkovo was founded in 1083 by Prince Gregory Pakourianos, a prominent Byzantine statesman and military commander, as a Georgian Orthodox monastery and also as a seminary teaching religion, maths, history and music. It was looted and destroyed not long after the invasion by the Turks and establishment of Ottoman rule in Bulgaria; but it was reconstructed in 1601, while the Cathedral Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary was finished in 1604. There is a full history (in English) on the monastery’s website.
The entrance to the monastery is decorated with paintings of angels attending the birth of Christ. On the left is the Archangel Michael and on the right the Archangel Gabriel.
Once inside the gate we were in the main courtyard. From here we could get good photos of two of the three churches here. Our guide told us that some of the trees planted in this courtyard were gifts from different countries to the monastery, such as the gingko from Japan.
The smaller church is closed to the public but the larger one, the Cathedral Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, can be visited and photography is allowed throughout. Just as well, as it is absolutely stunning and I am glad to be able to share some of its glories with you here.
The Cathedral Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary
Here our guide really came into his own, pointing out loads of details in the frescoes both outside and inside the church. The frescoes in the nave date from 1850. They were cleaned only a year ago and layers of sooty grime from burning candles removed, so we were fortunate to see them like this. Our guide pointed out many of the images and described the iconography of them.
He told us that the three fingered blessing given by Christ in several of the images denotes the Holy Trinity.
On the west wall we saw the Assumption again, as at Asen’s Fortress, but here far more distinct and surrounded by many other scenes. As I explained in that post, this is a traditional image in many Bulgarian churches. In it, a pagan is depicted kneeling at Mary’s bedside trying to drag her down to Hell, his hands chopped off at the wrist by an angel to prevent him succeeding.
There are a lot of Bible scenes, from both the Old and New Testaments. I didn’t recognise all of them, but I did spot the Last Supper (near the top left in my first photo below) and Jacob’s Ladder. The two Georgian brothers who founded the monastery, Grigorii and Abasii Bakuriani, are portrayed holding the building. The whole effect is completely overwhelming; not an inch of wall is left uncovered, that I could see!
Click on any photo in the gallery below to see all the images in a full–size slide–show; that’s worth doing when there is so much detail to absorb here!
The church’s prized possession is its Miracle Working Icon of the Holy Virgin, which has been here since the monastery was founded. According to the monastery’s website:
‘During the early times of the Ottoman rule, the icon was hidden in the territory of Kluviata, where it was found again in the beginning of the XVIIth century and brought back to the monastery. On two occasions the icon disappeared by itself only to be found in the same spot by the perplexed monks. Following a dream of one of them, it was finally brought back permanently and placed in a special spot, created for it in the cathedral church of the monastery, on the right from the central door, in a separate iconostasis and onto a small platform. In this way, it could be accessed by everybody in need. Such tales might be part of the mythology surrounding the holy object, but they undoubtedly add to its fame.’
The devout were queuing at one side of the church to pray to and kiss this icon. It seemed disrespectful to take photos of it under those circumstances, so I kept my distance. Like others in our group however, I was less respectful of the incredibly photogenic monk/priest in the church. I heard later from friends that he showed his displeasure when he realised how many of us were snatching photos; fortunately for me, after I had taken these shots!
In the outer part of the church, the narthex, it was naturally lighter and easier to take photos of the frescoes, although the colours were less rich. Here our guide pointed out images of the Holy Trinity and many saints.
The monks’ residences
Beyond the church in the far part of the courtyard are the monks’ residences, with towels and bed linen hanging prosaically on the balconies to air.
There is a second church here, the Archangels’ Church. This is the oldest of the three monastery churches, dating probably from the 12th century. It isn’t generally open to visitors, being reserved for the monks’ services.
The panorama fresco
The old refectory building on the opposite side of the main courtyard has a very well-preserved fresco running along part of its wall. It depicts the monastery itself and its surroundings, with an Easter procession emerging through the gate carrying the church’s miracle-working icon.
The procession group includes some people who made donations and provided support for the monastery. Everyone is wearing richly decorated clothes. The two founding brothers are also among those in the procession, dressed in monastic clothes even though neither of them was actually a monk. At one end of this panorama is a circular picture of St. George, at the other St. Dimitar.
St. Nicholas church
In the further courtyard beyond the refectory is a third church, dedicated to St. Nicholas. This is only used for weddings and baptisms, so we couldn’t see inside. But we did get a good look at the frescoes in its entrance area, the narthex, which our guide told us were the work of an especially famous painter, Zahari Zograf.
The paintings include a large one of Doomsday above the door depicting Heaven and Hell, with a battle between angels and devils for the soul of one individual whose deeds are being weighed in the centre. On the right the condemned are led away to Hell, while the saved souls on the left include a self-portrait of the artist!
Around the walls at the top are a series of small paintings telling the story of Adam and Eve. The one in my photo below shows God making Eve from one of Adam’s ribs as he sleeps.
By the time we returned to the main courtyard the sun had come out, so we were able to photograph the church with blue skies behind it. It gave us a beautiful last view of this atmospheric and spiritual place. I think anyone, of any religion or none, would feel at least a little inspired by a visit here here and stunned by the awesome paintings in its church.
I visited Bulgaria in 2019